Q: What is the difference between monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies? A: Monoclonal antibodies are produced by identical immune cells that are clones of a single parent cell. Polyclonal antibodies, on the other hand, are produced by multiple immune cells that are capable of recognizing different epitopes on the same antigen.

Q: What is the significance of monoclonal antibodies in laboratory research? A: Monoclonal antibodies are valuable tools in laboratory research due to their specificity and reproducibility. They can be used for various applications including detection and purification of specific molecules, targeting specific cells or tissues, and in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic agents.

Q: What are the different methods for producing monoclonal antibodies? A: The three most common methods for producing monoclonal antibodies are hybridoma technology, phage display, and transgenic animal technology.

Q: What is hybridoma technology and how is it used to produce monoclonal antibodies? A: Hybridoma technology involves the fusion of antibody-producing B cells with immortalized myeloma cells to create hybridoma cells that produce monoclonal antibodies. These monoclonal antibodies can then be purified and used for laboratory applications.

Q: What is phage display and how is it used to produce monoclonal antibodies? A: Phage display is a technique that involves the genetic engineering of bacteriophages to display antibody fragments on their surfaces. These antibody fragments can then be screened for binding to specific targets and used for laboratory applications.

Q: What is transgenic animal technology and how is it used to produce monoclonal antibodies? A: Transgenic animal technology involves the genetic modification of animals, such as mice, to produce human antibodies. These animals can then be used to produce monoclonal antibodies that are human in origin and have potential applications in the development of therapeutics.

Q: What is antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) technology? A: ADC technology involves the conjugation of monoclonal antibodies with cytotoxic drugs to create targeted therapeutic agents. The monoclonal antibody targets a specific antigen on a cell surface, while the cytotoxic drug kills the cell upon binding to the antibody.

Q: What is the significance of ADC technology in laboratory research? A: ADC technology has the potential to revolutionize the treatment of diseases such as cancer by providing targeted therapies that minimize damage to healthy tissues. In laboratory research, ADCs can be used to study specific cell types or to develop new therapeutic agents.